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Mission critical Uninterruptible power supply

An Uninterruptible Power Supply, also un interruptible power source, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically the utility mains , fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or stands by generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short 5–15 minutes being typical for smaller units but sufficient to allow time to bring an auxiliary power source on line, or to properly shut down the protected equipment.

While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication  equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss the one and only one solution is an On line UPS. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities.

Common power problems
The primary role of any UPS is to provide short-term power when the input power source fails. However, most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems:

  • Power failure or blackout: defined as a total loss of input voltage.
  • Surge: defined as a momentary or sustained increase in the main voltage.
  • Sag: defined as a momentary or sustained reduction in input voltage
  • Spikes, defined as a brief high voltage excursion
  • Noise, defined as a high frequency transient or oscillation, usually injected into the line by nearby equipment.
  • Frequency instability: defined as temporary changes in the mains frequency.
  • Harmonic distortion: defined as a departure from the ideal sinusoidal wave form expected on the line.

The online UPS is ideal for environments where electrical isolation is necessary or for equipment that is very sensitive to power fluctuations. Although once previously reserved for   installations of 10 kW or more, advances in technology have now permitted it to be available as a common consumer device, supplying 500 watts or l. The online UPS may be necessary when the power environment is "noisy", when utility power sags, outages and other anomalies are frequent, when protection of sensitive IT equipment loads is required, or when operation from an extended-run backup generator is necessary.

Online UPS, due to it having a much greater current AC-to-DC battery-charger/rectifier, and with the rectifier and inverter designed to run continuously with improved cooling systems. It is called a double-conversion UPS due to the rectifier directly driving the inverter, even when powered from normal AC current.

The main advantage to the on-line UPS is its ability to provide an electrical firewall between the incoming utility power and sensitive electronic equipment. While the standby and line-interactive UPS merely filter the input utility power, the double-conversion UPS provides a layer of insulation from power quality problems. It allows control of output voltage and frequency regardless of input voltage and frequency.

Decentralized Parallel Architecture for mission-critical facilities
High-Availability power systems require four elements: Reliability, Functionality, Maintainability, and Fault Tolerance. Hence the rapid growth of data centers with mission critical applications that are fundamentally immune to planned and unplanned downtime have increased the demand for continuous availability, flexibility, and serviceability which resulted to the evolution of the optimum solution, i.e. decentralized Parallel Architecture) with unique Safe-Swap Modules (SSM) addresses all the availability concerns related to power protection of mission critical applications. The move to high power density blade servers has caused a shift in the performance of advanced power protection systems. High power protection availability is achieved by combining the double conversion technology (high reliability), advanced redundant parallel architecture (high availability and Safe-Swap modular technique (premium availability)

N+1 redundancy
In large business environments where reliability is of great importance, a single huge UPS can also be a single point of failure that can disrupt many other systems. To provide greater reliability, multiple smaller UPS modules and batteries can be integrated together to provide redundant power protection equivalent to one very large UPS. "N+1" means that if the load can be supplied by N modules, the installation will contain N+ 1 module. In this way, failure of one module will not impact system operation.

Multiple redundancies.
Many computer servers offer the option of redundant power supplies, so that in the event of one power supply failing, one or more other power supplies are able to power the load. This is a critical point – each power supply must be able to power the entire server by itself.

Redundancy is further enhanced by plugging each power supply into a different circuit (i.e. to a different circuit breaker).

Redundant protection can be extended further yet by connecting each power supply to its own UPS. This provides double protection from both a power supply failure and a UPS failure, so that continued operation is assured. This configuration is also referred to as 1+1 or 2N redundancy. If the budget does not allow for two identical UPS units then it is common practice to plug one power supply into mains power and the other into the UPS.

Outdoor use
When a UPS system is placed outdoors, it should have some specific features that guarantee that it can tolerate weather with a 'minimal to none' effect on performance. Factors such as temperature, humidity, rain, and snow among others should be considered by the manufacturer when designing an outdoor UPS system. Operating Temperature ranges for outdoor UPS systems could be around −40 °C to +55 °C.

Outdoor UPS systems can be pole, ground (pedestal), or host mounted. Outdoor environment could mean extreme cold, in which case the outdoor UPS system should include a battery heater mat, or extreme heat, in which case the outdoor UPS system should include a fan system or an air conditioning system.